Features Of The Views Of The Followers Of Freud

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Freud was surrounded by many students. The most distinctive of them were Carl Jung (1875-1961) and A. Adler (1870-1937), who created their own direction. The first named his analytical psychology, the second- individual. Their names were in psychoanalysis so closely linked that when Jung, presenting to the keeper of the British Museum, to give his name, that asked: "Freud, Jung, Adler, 'and heard the apology in response:" No, just Jung "

In the words of Carl Jung followers of Freud learned from his "father" that is not that what he taught, but what he did ". Dissatisfaction with the psychoanalytic method and the need to revise some of the postulates of orthodox Freudianism led his closest followers to a personal break with Freud, but not to break with psychoanalysis.

The first innovation was the concept of Jung's "collective unconscious". If, for Freud, the unconscious mind of the individual can enter events, be forced out of consciousness, Jung believed its rich forms, which in any case can not be purchased individually, but they are gifts of ancestors. Analysis allows us to "find" the gift, which is formed by several hidden mental structures, which Jung called archetypes. The archetypes are instinctive in man. In his famous work "The archetype and the symbol" Jung explains the essence of following this concept: "Under the archetypes I understand the collective nature of the forms and patterns found in almost all the land as an element of myth and at the same time are autochthonous, individual products of unconscious origin. Archetypal motifs originate from archetypal images of the human mind, which are transmitted not only by tradition and migration but also by heredity. This hypothesis is necessary because even the most complex archetypal patterns can spontaneously be reproduced without any tradition. Preimage or archetype is the result of a huge articulated technical expertise of countless number of ancestors. That is the psychic residue of innumerable experiences of the same type. "

The notion of archetypes Jung explained on the basis of the theory of the collective unconscious, he makes a clear separation between the individual and the collective unconscious. Individual unconscious reflects the personal experience of the individual and consists of the experiences that were once conscious but have lost their conscious nature by virtue of neglect or suppression. The collective unconscious is a common human experience, characteristic to all races and peoples. It represents latent memory traces of the human past, as well as subhuman animal state. It is fixed in the mythologies, folk epics, religious beliefs and manifest, that is, comes to the surface of modern humans through dreams. Therefore, the main indicator for Jung of the unconscious is the dream and his psychoanalytic work.

Arguing that "the Freud's theory of sexuality is extremely important to me and personally, and in the philosophical sense" Jung, nonetheless denied her as the only expression of personality of mental integrity and cites numerous examples of "neurosis, in which the issue of sexuality has played a subordinate role as well to the fore other factors, such as the problem of social adaptation, the pressure of the tragic circumstances of life, for reasons of prestige, etc. "

Adler, modifying the original doctrine of psychoanalysis, identified as a factor in the development of individual feelings of inferiority engendered by, inter alia, bodily defects. If Freud's explanation of the motives of the individual concentrated their attention on identifying the causes of human actions, A. Adler believed that it is necessary to know the ultimate goal of his ambition, "an unconscious life plan" by which he tries to overcome the stress of life and its uncertainty. According to the teachings of Adler, an individual because of physical defects (imperfections of human nature) feels a sense of worthlessness or inferiority. In an effort to overcome this feeling and self-esteem among others, he updated his creative potential. This update, Adler, using the conceptual apparatus of psychoanalysis, called it compensation, or overcompensation. Overcompensation is a special form of social reaction to feelings of inferiority. In the "inferiority complex" Adler sees the source of neurosis.
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